The production risk factors and the main causes
One, in the forging production, the traumatic accident that occurs, the reason can be divided into three kinds:
First, mechanical injury -- scratch, bruise, directly caused by machine, tool or workpiece;
Third, electrical contact.
Two, from the perspective of safe technology labor protection, the forging workshop is characterized by:
1. The forging production was conducted under the conditions of hot metal such as mild steel forging temperature range between 1250 ~ 1250 ℃), because there are a lot of manual labor, a bit not careful burns may occur.
2. Forging heating furnace and the heat of ingot in the workshop, casting and forging continuously spread out a lot of radiant heat (by the end of the forging in the forging press, still has quite high temperature), workers are often thermal radiation.
3. The forge heating furnace in the combustion process of smoke into the air of workshop, not only affect the health environment, also reduced visibility within the workshop (for heating furnace burning solid fuels, the situation is more serious), and therefore may cause accidents.
4. The equipment used for forging production, such as air hammer, steam hammer, friction press, etc., is the impact force when working.When the device is subjected to this impact load, it is prone to sudden damage (such as the sudden break of a hammer piston rod), causing serious injury accidents.
Press machine (such as hydraulic press, crank die forging press, plain forging machine, fine press), etc. At work, impact, although small, but suddenly damaged equipment, and so on and so forth also happen from time to tome, the operator often caught off-guard, also may lead to accidents.
5. Forging equipment in the work force is very big, such as such as crank press, stretching forging press and hydraulic press forging equipment, their working conditions are relatively stable, but the strength of its working parts is very big, such as our country already manufacture and use of a 12000 t forging hydraulic press.The power of the usual 100-150 t presses is big enough.If the mold is not properly installed or operated, most of the action is not on the workpiece, but on the parts of the mold, tool, or device itself.In this way, improper installation and adjustment errors or improper tools may cause damage to the machine and other serious equipment or personal accidents.
6. The tools and auxiliary tools of the forge, especially the tools and clamps of hand forging and free forging, are all in the work place.At work, the tool can be replaced frequently, deposit is often messy, it will increase the difficulty of these tools to check when the need to use a tool in the forging and often cannot quickly find, sometimes "make do" with similar tools, so often causes accidents.
7. Due to the forging workshop equipment in the running noise and vibration, and make the work place noisy ear-piercing screech, affect the person's hearing and the nervous system, distracted, thus increase the likelihood of an accident.
Three, analysis of the cause of industrial injury accidents in forging shop
1. The area, equipment and safety devices that need protection are lacking.
2. The protective device on the device is not perfect or not used.
3. The production equipment is defective or defective.
4. Damage to equipment or tools and improper working conditions.
5. There is something wrong with the forging and anvil.
6. Organization and management of workplace disorders.
7. Do not properly handle the process and repair work.
8. Personal protective equipment such as protective glasses, working clothes and working shoes do not meet working conditions.
9. When several people are working on a project, they cooperate with each other.
10. The lack of technical education and security knowledge led to incorrect steps and methods.
Matters Needing Attention
The forging process should be noted
1. The forging process includes: cutting the material into required size, heating, forging, heat treatment, cleaning and inspection.In small hand forging, all of these operations are carried out by a number of blacksmithing hands and hands in small Spaces.They are all exposed to the same harmful environmental and occupational hazards;In large forging workshops, hazards vary from job to job.
The working conditions Although the working conditions for forging form varies, but has some common features: moderate intensity physical labor, dry heat microclimate environment, noise and vibration of the air polluted by smoke.
2. The workers are exposed to both high temperature and heat radiation, resulting in the accumulation of heat in the body, heat added to the heat of metabolism, resulting in heat dissipation and pathological changes.The amount of sweat in 8 hours will vary between 1.5 and 5 liters, or even higher, depending on the small gas environment, physical exertion, and thermal adaptability.In the smaller forging workshops or farther from the heat source, the bhab thermal stress index is usually 55 ~ 95.But in large forging workshops, the working points near the heating furnace or the drop hammer can be as high as 150 ~ 190.It causes a lack of salt and heat spasms.During the cold season, the changes exposed to the microclimate may contribute to adaptation to a certain extent, but rapid and too frequent changes may pose a health hazard.
Air pollution: a place in the air may contain smoke, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or contains acrolein, its concentration depends on the kinds of heating furnace fuel and contains impurities, and the combustion efficiency, air flow and ventilation.
Noise and vibration: the type forging hammer must produce low frequency noise and vibration, but it may also have a certain high frequency component, and its sound pressure level is between 95 and 115 decibels.Workers exposed to forged vibration can cause temperament and functional disorders, reduce work ability and affect safety.