On May 10, 1869, spent six years of the American continent railway was completed, the total length of about 2000 miles, to become one of the greatest works of 19th century, nearly 12000 Chinese workers to participate in railway construction of the western, about 80% of the central Pacific, the total labor force.
On May 10, 1869, spent six years of the American continent railway was completed, the total length of about 2000 miles, to become one of the greatest works of 19th century, nearly 12000 Chinese workers to participate in railway construction of the western, about 80% of the central Pacific, the total labor force.But there were no representatives of Chinese laborers in the celebration of the rail link, and their contributions were buried for more than a century.
On May 8, the California house of representatives voted unanimously to mark May 10 as the anniversary of the railroad. This anniversary honors the achievements of Chinese workers.
On May 18, the international museum day, the track -- overseas Chinese and railway special exhibition, was launched at the China railway museum in zhengyang gate, Beijing.One piece of exhibits tells the history of the railway construction behind the Chinese laborers and the stories of the countries.
"The people who can build the Great Wall must be able to build railways."
At the scene of the exhibition, a stagnation in south China university of technology to go to America to raise money for the gold rush "to paste" and a word ten years will the new people hsiu signed in macau when labor contract, showing the Chinese workers displaced, exotic dreams of heart.
In 1862, the United States congress passed a resolution to build a railroad artery across the Midwest to speed the development of the western United States. The railway is divided into two parts, which are contracted by the union Pacific railway corporation and the central Pacific railway corporation. In the east, the terrain is gentle and the railway construction is progressing smoothly. The western region should not only cross the mountains, but also cross deserts, swamps and harsh environments. The central Pacific railway corporation, the contractor for the western section, had a headache. Because the project was so arduous, the white workers who had been hired were afraid to work, and even fled. Construction began two years ago, and the western railway was built more than 40 miles.
In January 1864, some Chinese who had been engaged in other industries joined the construction under the leadership of Chinese foremen. The project contractor, crocker, saw good results and suggested a large-scale recruitment of Chinese workers. "The people who can build the Great Wall will also be able to build railways," crocker said.Thus, the railway company, which compared the railway to the Great Wall, weighed the advantages and disadvantages and hired Chinese laborers on a large scale to build the most dangerous railway. The history of Chinese and railway tears began. Posters in Chinese have spread to every corner of Chinatown.Soon, railroads recruited more than 3,000 Chinese workers in California, but that was far from enough.
The U.S. central Pacific railway, which is more than 3,000 kilometers long, made its first trip across the entire continent, making it a modern America. This feat is declared in the continental United States in the economic operation started together as a whole, to push the United States as the economic power of connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the United States from a country exists in name only, fully turned into a real state.
The deep groove that had been built to run through the railroad is now history. A picture of bruner's deep trough, the wisdom and hard work of Chinese laborers.
In a wilderness on the outskirts of auburn, California, a stone inscription reads: "bloomer's deep groove, at the bloomer ranch, hence the name...The arduous and great task was accomplished by the industrious Chinese. With their chisel, shovels, and gunpowder, they dug their way through rock-solid clay and rock.When the project was completed, it was considered the eighth wonder of the world. This is a monument specially erected by the local people in 1991 to commemorate the participation of the Chinese workers in the blue moon.
In railway construction, the Chinese workers showed remarkable ability. In order to lay the tracks, they decided to overcome the difficulties and excavate a tunnel 250 meters long and dozens of meters deep in the land that was not suitable for the construction of the tunnel. At the time, construction tools were simple, using wheelbarrows and shovels, digging up more than 20,000 cubic meters of rock and carrying them away. Excavation earthwork deep groove penetration time is in November 1864, to 1865, 3-4 months, bloom the rails laid the basic completion of deep groove, bloom's deep groove is south China university of technology after the Pacific cooperated-builing railway created the first miracle.
This article is regarded as a miracle in the minds of American people big railway, at the time of bad construction conditions, tunnel, bridge, in the mountains carrying sand, blasting, construction process is extremely difficult. The steep terrain of sierra Nevada is the most difficult to build a central Pacific railway. The most difficult section of the nearly 1,100-kilometer central Pacific railway is built by chinese-led workers.
In the United States central Pacific railroad workers' salary record, the proportion of Chinese workers is even up to 95% at the end of the project. According to the record, more than 12,000 Chinese workers went to the United States to repair the railway, of which 90 percent came from the new meeting in guangdong, kaiping, taishan and enping "four cities". The central Pacific railway was originally planned to be built in 14 years, but it took only seven years to save two-thirds of the cost, thanks to the heavy use of diligent and cheap Chinese workers. During the construction, many Chinese workers gave their lives. A local newspaper reported that 20, 000 pounds were left on the road.
On May 10, 1869, the United States Pacific great railroad east and west two sections of the railroad, this is known as "the 19th century world railroad building miracle" traffic artery declared to be completed.On the day of the railway, however, no Chinese laborers were invited to the ceremony. At the final closure ceremony, first initiative recruiting road south China university of technology in the central Pacific railroad company director Ryan crocker once said a word to remind everybody: "I want to remind you, we build the railway will soon complete, largely to poor and despised the Chinese working class -- to show their loyalty and hardworking. "This is the famous "one-sentence history" in the history of American immigration.
Overseas Chinese flute sound
Field in the part of the cultural relics on display, reveal another section of the overseas Chinese history: the twenty-third year of the republic of China Liu Xili shareholders often sit sunnybrook railway ticket stub, sunnybrook twenty years of the republic of the railway about schedules, guangxu thirty-two years commercial guangdong sunnybrook railroad rate discount. The overseas Chinese have overcome all the difficulties, and with rich experience in building roads and railways in overseas Chinese, they hope to save the rich countries and benefit their homeland.
Xining railway, by jiangmen taishan travel overseas Chinese Chen yixi.In 1906, construction broke ground and was completed in 1920. It lasted for 14 years and was 133km long.Xining railway was operated for more than 30 years. During the Anti-Japanese War, the railway was severely damaged by the Japanese army. After the fall of guangzhou in October 1938, the national government ordered the railway to be demolished to prevent the Japanese army from taking advantage of the railway, and now only the old site of jiangmen north street railway station of xining railway was saved. Sunnybrook railway is the longest national overseas private railway, the huge investment, long history, advanced construction technology, quality engineering quality, has an important position in the history of Chinese history especially railway history.During the construction of the railway, the construction party insisted on "no foreign stocks, no foreign money, no foreign workers", and the first private railway constructed by the Chinese people in their own design, self-construction and self-financing.
In addition to the independent construction mode, xining railway's unique ferry transportation is another feature.In his essay "the poem of the machine", Mr. Ba jin described the picture of the crossing of xining railway "ferry train" : "when it comes to tanjiang, the train stops. The wheels did not move, and the landscape began to move slowly. It's not a miracle. This is the most beautiful project on the xining railway. There was no bridge, and the train got on the ship, and stayed on the boat, and let the ship carry it slowly across the river. The "ferry train" of xining railway is a pioneering work in China's railway history.
The founder of this railway, traveling overseas Chinese Chen yixi, devoted his life to the transportation of his hometown. Chen yixi was a poor boy who made a living selling knots, needles and buttons.In 1864, he went to the United States and worked as a dustman and road builder in Seattle railway station. In 1889, he established guangde company as the prime minister and contracted the construction of the north Pacific railway project. He has been engaged in railway construction in the United States for 40 years, and he is experienced in building roads. In the past 30 years, the company initiated the xining railway, which raised a total of 4.25 million yuan, and founded xining railway company in 1906. Chen yixi was promoted as prime minister and engineer. Sunnybrook railway board to be cast bronze statue in TaiCheng terminus, bronze before leave a couplet: "seeks the traffic is very convenient to art is rich and strong tree industry comparable to the statue, built the great undertaking of discomforts pilot all leave one's comments. "This "spike" of North America, with thousands of wanton expectations, finally landed on its own land.